The comprehensive eye examination involves analyzing the condition of the eye in all its parts: refraction (visual acuity), observation of the anterior and posterior segments. If a patient is undergoing an examination for the first time at the centre, the first approach will be dedicated to a careful evaluation of his clinical history, that is to the collection of the previous data concerning both his overall and ocular health. That’s why it is important that the patient always carries with him his previous ophthalmological documentation (if available) and possibly the medical records relating to any other diseases in progress. After analyzing the patient’s clinical history, we proceed with refractometry, a brief examination that allows to control the visual acuity, with the reading of letters, to determine the necessity or otherwise of an optical correction (glasses or contact lenses).
Then we continue with the measurement of ocular pressure, after instilling a drop of anaesthetic into both eyes (so that the procedure is painless for the patient) and with the slit-lamp examination of the anterior segment (where the cornea has its seat), of the crystalline lens, and of the adnexa (eyelids and eyelashes).
Some drops are then instilled to dilate the pupil; the effect of these drops reaches its peak after about 10-15 minutes after instillation (although time is subjective). After this period of time it is possible to perform the examination of the posterior segment and therefore to analyze the vitreous humour, the retina and the optic nerve.
After the examination, the doctor will evaluate the overall health of the eye and expose his diagnosis to the patient, prescribing him lenses and any additional examinations and assessments as he may deem necessary.